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At one time, astronomers believed the surface of Mars canada goose outlet toronto was crisscrossed by canal systems. This in turn gave rise to speculation that Mars was very much like Earth, capable of supporting life and home to a native civilization. But as human satellites and rovers began to conduct flybys and surveys of the planet, this vision of Mars quickly dissolved, replaced by one in which the Red Planet was a cold, desiccated and lifeless world.
However, over the past few decades, scientists have come to learn a great deal about the history of Mars that has altered this view as well. We now know that though canada goose outlet washington dc Mars may currently be very cold, very dry, and very inhospitable, this wasn always the case. What more, we have come to see that even in its current form, Mars and canada goose outlet online reviews Earth actually have a lot in common.
canadian goose jacket Between the two planets, there are similarities in size, inclination, structure, composition, and even the presence of water on their surfaces. That being said, they also have a lot of key differences that would make living on Mars, a growing preoccupation among many humans (looking at you, Elon Musk and Bas Lansdorp!), a significant challenge. Let go over these similarities and the difference in an orderly fashion, shall we? canadian goose jacket
Sizes, Masses and Orbits:
buy canada goose jacket In terms of their size and mass, Earth and canada goose outlet niagara falls Mars are quite different. With a mean radius of 6371 km and a mass of 5.971024kg, Earth is the fifth largest and fifth most massive planet in the Solar System, and the largest of the terrestrial planets. Mars, meanwhile, has canada goose jacket outlet store a radius of approximately 3,396 km at its equator (3,376 km at its polar regions), which is the equivalent of roughly 0.53 Earths. However http://www.mycanadagoosejacket.org , it mass is just 6.4185 x 10 kg, which is around 10.7% that of Earth’s. buy canada goose jacket
Mars’s axial tilt is very similar to Earth’s, being inclined 25.19 to its orbital plane (whereas Earth’s axial tilt is just over 23). This means that both are differentiated canada goose outlet mississauga between a dense metallic core and an canada goose outlet price overlying mantle and crust composed of less dense materials (like silicate rock). However, Earth density is higher than that of Mars 5.514g/cm3 compared to 3.93 g/cm (or 0.71 Earths) which indicates that Mars core region contains more lighter elements than Earth core region is made up of a solid inner core that has a radius of about 1,220km and a liquid outer core that extends to a radius of about 3,400km. Both the inner and outer cores are composed of iron and nickel, with trace amounts of lighter elements, and together, they add to a radius that is as large as Mars itself. Current models of Mars interior suggest that its core region is roughly 1,79465 kilometers (1 canada goose outlet ,11540mi) in radius, and is composed primarily of iron and nickel with about 16 17% sulfur.
canada goose coats Both planets have a silicate mantle surrounding their cores and a surface crust of solid material. Earth mantle consisting of an upper mantle of slightly viscous material and a lower mantle that canada goose outlet authentic is more solid is roughly 2,890 km (1,790 mi) thick and is composed of silicate rocks that are rich in iron and canada goose kensington parka uk magnesium. igneous rocks) and granite (rich in sodium, potassium, and aluminum). canada goose coats
canada goose deals Comparatively, Mars mantle is quite thin, measuring some 1,300 to 1,800 kilometers (800 1,100 mi) in thickness. Like Earth, this mantle canada goose outlet new york city is believed to be composed of silicate rock that are rich in minerals compared to the crust, and to be partially viscous (resulting in convection currents which shaped the surface). The crust, meanwhile, averages about 50 km (31 mi) in thickness, with a maximum of 125 km (78 mi). This makes it about three times as hick as Earth crust, relative to the sizes of the two planets. canada goose deals
canada goose clearance sale Ergo, official canada goose outlet the two planets are similar in composition, owing to canada goose outlet locations in toronto their common status as terrestrial planets. Naturally, it is the differences that are most apparent when comparing Blue Earth to the Red Planet as the nicknames would suggest. Unlike other planet in our Solar System, the vast majority of Earth is covered in liquid water, about 70% of the surface or 361.132millionkm (139.43 million sq mi) to be exact. canada goose clearance sale
canada goose The surface of Mars is dry, dusty, and covered in dirt that is rich iron oxide (aka. rust, leading to its reddish appearance). However, canada goose outlet legit large concentrations of ice water are known to exist within the polar ice caps Planum Boreum and Planum Australe. In addition, a permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60, meaning that ice water exists beneath much of the Martian surface. Radar data and soil samples have confirmed the presence of shallow subsurface water at the middle latitudes as well. canada goose
buy canada goose jacket cheap As for the similarities, Earth and Mars both have terrains that varies considerably from place to canada goose outlet ottawa place. On Earth, both above and below sea level, there are mountainous features, volcanoes, scarps (trenches), canyons, plateaus, and abyssal plains. The remaining portions of the surface are covered by mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms. buy canada goose jacket cheap
Mars is quite similar, with a surface covered by mountain ranges, sandy plains, and even some of the largest sand dunes in the Solar System. It also has the largest mountain in the Solar System, the shield volcano Olympus Mons, and the longest, deepest chasm in the Solar System: Valles Marineris.
canada goose coats on sale Earth and Mars have also experienced many impacts from asteroids and meteors over the years. However, Mars own impact craters are far better preserved, with many dating back billions of years. The reason for this is the low air pressure and lack of precipitation on Mars, which results in a very slow rate of erosion. However, this was not always the case. canada goose coats on sale
Canada Goose Jackets Mars has discernible gullies and channels on its surface, and many scientists believe that liquid water used to flow through them. By comparing them to similar features on Earth, it is believed that these were were at least partially formed by water canada goose outlet store near me erosion. Some of these channels are quite large, reaching 2,000 kilometers in length and 100 kilometers in width. Canada Goose Jackets
Color mosaic of Mars greatest mountain, canada goose outlet canada Olympus Mons, viewed from orbit. Credit NASA/JPL
Canada Goose Outlet So while they look quite different today, Earth and Mars were once quite similar. Earth has a dense atmosphere composed of five main layers the Troposphere, the Stratosphere, the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere, and the Exosphere. Mars is very thin by comparison, with pressure ranging from 0.4 0.87 kPa which is equivalent to about 1% of Earth’s at sea level. Canada Goose Outlet
Earth atmosphere is canada goose outlet trillium parka black also primarily composed of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) with trace concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gaseous molecules. Mars is composed of 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen along with traces of oxygen and water. Recent surveys have also noted trace amounts of methane, with an estimated concentration of about 30 parts per billion (ppb).
cheap Canada Goose Because of this, there is a considerable difference between the average surface temperature on Earth and Mars. On Earth, it is approximately 14C, with plenty of variation due to geographical region, elevation, and time of year. The hottest temperature ever recorded on Earth was 70.7C (159F) in the Lut canada goose outlet vip Desert of Iran, while the coldest temperature was 89.2C ( 129F) at the Soviet Vostok Station on the Antarctic Plateau. cheap Canada Goose
Canada Goose Parka Space Shuttle Endeavor silhouetted against the atmosphere. The orange layer is the troposphere, the white layer is the stratosphere and the blue layer the mesosphere. Credit: NASA Canada Goose Parka
Because of its thin atmosphere and its greater distance from the Sun, the surface temperature of Mars is much colder, averaging at 46 C ( 51 F). However, because of its tilted axis and orbital eccentricity, Mars also experiences considerable variations in temperature. These can be seen in the form of a low temperature of 143 C ( 225.4 F) during the winter at the poles, and a high of 35 C (95 F) during summer and midday at the equator.
Canada Goose online The atmosphere of Mars is also quite dusty, containing particulates that measure 1.5 micrometers in diameter, which is what gives the Martian sky a tawny color when seen from the surface. The planet also experiences dust storms, which can turn into what resembles small tornadoes. Larger dust storms occur when the dust is blown into the atmosphere and heats up from the Sun. Canada Goose online
canada goose clearance So basically, Earth has a dense atmosphere that is rich in oxygen and water vapor, and which is generally warm and conducive to life. Mars, meanwhile, is generally very cold, but can become canada goose sale uk quite warm at times. It also quite dry and very dusty canada goose clearance.